Confronted with the present financial realities, producers worldwide are looking for new choices of surviving, in addition to increasing their enterprise. One of many many alternatives to develop markets, turnover and income is by including worth to farm produce via additional processing.
Two kinds of processing strategies could also be carried out on uncooked supplies:
Main processing: This kind of processing consists of the only of processes resembling washing, peeling, chopping, ageing, milling of wheat for flour manufacturing and the processing of sugar cane.
Secondary processing: Any such processing includes the conversion of main processed merchandise into extra complicated meals merchandise, and consists of procedures reminiscent of mixing, depositing, layering, extruding, drying, fortifying, fermentation, pasteurisation, heating, and so forth.
Avocado oil from mushy fruit: Avocado oil might be extracted from the smooth fruit or dehydrated product. The oil recovered from the gentle fruit is extra fascinating as it’s free from solvent residues or flavour deterioration because of ultra-high temperatures. This oil is very prized to be used in soaps and cosmetics.
Guacamole is a dish consisting of mashed avocado’s combined with chopped onions, tomatoes, chilli peppers and seasoning.
Banana purée is the crushed and pasteurised liquid that can be utilized in confectionery merchandise, drinks, sauces, flavourings and fillings in addition to in fruit juices. The product is preserved by aseptic packaging or freeze storage.
Banana focus: Banana purée is concentrated by evaporation. The focus is used as base fillings, drinks, sauces and puddings.
Banana flour is the dried product produced from mashed inexperienced bananas.
Frozen bananas. Recent bananas are individually fast frozen (IQF) to supply a ‘recent fruit’ which maintains particular person id and is good for integration into muffins and different bakery merchandise. Frozen bananas may also be utilized in fruit cocktails and breakfast cereals.
Dehydrated banana slices are ready from ripe, peeled bananas by an air-drying or vacuum-drying course of. The slices are dehydrated utilizing air convection dryers reminiscent of tunnel dryers to a moisture content material of between four and seven%. Vacuum drying produces a superior product, and is ready to scale back the moisture content material to under three,5% to supply a crisp chip-like snack that retains its unique color and flavour for over a yr.
Photo voltaic-dried bananas (small scale) have a moisture content material of 15%, a mushy, leathery texture and attribute banana flavour. Ideally the color ought to be as mild as attainable. Photo voltaic drying makes most use of photo voltaic warmth to dry a meals product. It may be used as a alternative for solar drying because it causes fewer losses, mud contamination and reduces the drying time. It does, nevertheless, nonetheless require truthful climate circumstances to be efficient.
Solar-dried bananas: Banana slices are dried in direct daylight, on racks on the bottom for five–7 days. Scorching, dry climates are required for the profitable drying of any fruit. Solar drying reduces the moisture content material of the bananas to 15%. The top product is tender and leathery with a attribute banana flavour.
Banana flakes are a dried product produced from banana purée. Drying is carried out on drum (curler) dryers. The flakes may be floor to supply banana powder. Banana flakes and powder are utilized by the baking and confectionery business.
Solar-dried figs are eaten as a fruit snack or used as an ingredient in baking. It has a delicate, chewy texture and attribute fig flavour. Ultimate cultivars for drying ought to have a robust flavour, excessive density and solid-to-acid ratio to supply a dried product with the required style.
Tunnel-dried figs: Recent figs are dried in tunnels to a ultimate moisture content material of between 12–17%. The product is eaten as a fruit snack or used as an ingredient in baking.
Frozen figs: Recent figs are sliced and frozen in sugar syrup for later use in processed meals and baked items.
Guava purée is ready from entire, recent guavas via a maceration or pulping and screening course of. It’s preserved by freezing, canning or aseptic packaging. It might even be concentrated. The purée is used to organize guava nectar and different drinks, syrups, sauces, toppings, jams and jellies.
Guava fruit leather-based: Guavas don’t dry nicely within the type of items, however might be dried pretty properly in a purée to supply a fruit bar or fruit leather-based. It’s additional beneficial that guava purée be combined with that of different fruits comparable to mango, banana or papaya to enhance the flavour of the product.
Guava juice is the liquid expressed from the edible portion of the fruit, by urgent or different mechanical means. It’s naturally turbid on account of mobile elements in suspension. Clarification may be completed by centrifugation. Guava juice is especially used as a breakfast meals, in punch or bakery merchandise. It additionally serves because the packaging medium for a lot of different canned guava merchandise. The juice can be utilized to fabricate guava jelly. Guava juice is ready from recent guavas or guava purée.
Guava purée focus: Guava purée is concentrated to scale back the quantity and thus transportation and storage prices of the product. Focus can also be a way of preservation because it reduces the water exercise of the product.
Guava fruit bar: Guavas don’t dry nicely within the type of items, however could be dried pretty properly in a purée to supply a fruit bar or fruit leather-based. A fruit bar is a dried type of fruit purée that has been sweetened with sugar. It has a moisture content material of between 15–20%, a mushy, chewy texture and candy style attribute to the actual fruit used. Each pink and yellow guava cultivars can be utilized to supply a fruit bar. Roughly 400g of recent guavas are needed to supply 100g fruit bar, i.e. a yield of 25%.
Kiwi fruit juice (clarified) is the liquid expressed from sound, mature kiwi fruit. It has a sweet-tart flavour and excessive acid content material. The juice is clarified by a mixture of separation, filtration and enzyme remedies.
Kiwifruit juice (cloudy) can also be expressed from sound, mature kiwifruit, having a sweet-tart flavour and excessive acid content material. Cloudy kiwifruit juice is partially clarified and could also be concentrated to a soluble solids content material of 20°Bx (levels Brix). The juice is preserved by bottling or canning whereas the focus is frozen.
Kiwi fruit nectar is a cloudy kiwi fruit juice that incorporates added sugar, stabilisers and citric acid, in addition to different elective components akin to preservatives. The nectar might be manufactured from recent kiwi fruit of excellent high quality or from frozen, deseeded kiwi fruit pulp. The completed nectar has a soluble solids degree of 14°Bx and acidity of zero,75% (expressed as citric acid). A lot of the interesting inexperienced color is misplaced through the warmth processing concerned in producing the nectar, however this may be overcome by the addition of permitted synthetic colors.
Kiwi fruit pulp is produced from ripe fruit that’s washed, pulped and deseeded. It’s preserved by freezing and has a most storage lifetime of twelve months. It’s primarily an intermediate product that’s additional processed into nectars, pie toppings, fruit yoghurt bases, ice-cream and different frozen dessert flavourings.
Concentrated kiwi fruit juice is produced from clarified juice that’s concentrated to a soluble solids content material of 60–70°Bx. The juice is preserved by bottling or canning whereas the focus is frozen.
Litchi juice focus: Recent litchis are used to supply a partial juice which is then concentrated by the method of water removing. The ultimate product has at the least double the power of the usual ready-to-drink juice. Litchi juice focus is especially used as a base for the preparation of drinks. The buyer merely provides and mixes a measured amount of water or carbonated water with the focus to supply the beverage.
Dehydrated mango slices: Mangoes may be dehydrated in a agency, ripe or full-size inexperienced situation by air convection drying ovens, cupboards or tunnels. The ultimate moisture content material determines using the product. Mango cultivars with shiny yellow/orange flesh which have minimal peeling and drip losses are perfect for dehydration.
Mango atchar: Inexperienced mangoes with untimely delicate seeds are appropriate for atchar or oil pickles. Cured inexperienced mango slices are drained, combined with spices and oil and crammed into appropriate containers and sealed. Additional oil is added on the prime to stop air entry. Excessive acid mangoes (5–6%) have been discovered to supply the highest quality atchar.
Mango fruit leather-based: Fruit leathers are dried sheets of fruit pulp with a mushy rubbery texture and candy style, attribute of the fruit used. Most kinds of fruit can be utilized to supply fruit leathers, both alone or in mixtures. Probably the most generally used fruits are apples, numerous berries, mangoes, peaches, plums, mangoes, guavas, pineapples and keenness fruit. Layers of various colored leathers may be pressed collectively to type a sandwich. The only layers might be minimize in numerous shapes or strips that may be rolled up.
Mango juice is the strained liquid extracted from ripe mangoes. It’s thus freed from pores and skin, seed and coarse particles, however incorporates solids in suspension. Mango juice has a vibrant yellow color with typical mango style. It’s preserved in a ready-to-drink type by acidification and a gentle warmth remedy adopted by canning, bottling or aseptic packaging.
Mango purée is the crushed, sieved and pasteurised pulp obtained from recent ripe mangoes. It may be utilized in confectionery merchandise, drinks, sauces, flavourings and fillings and in fruit juices. The product is preserved by freezing, canning or aseptic packaging
Frozen inexperienced mango slices are a highly regarded dessert in Asia. Inexperienced mangoes with untimely mushy seeds are appropriate for this course of.
Canned mango items: Ripe, agency mangoes are used for the manufacturing of canned mango slices.
Dried papaya items: Papaya items are dried to supply a candy, fruit snack with a chewy texture. The ultimate moisture content material might be between 15–25%, relying on the specified texture. Agency ripe papayas of the pink or yellow varieties are used. The shelf lifetime of this product is about 90 days at ambient temperatures. Storage temperatures of under 7°C will prolong the shelf life.
Papaya juice is the liquid extracted from papaya purée. Frozen or freshly ready papaya purée can be utilized. The purée is diluted with water to supply a juice with a 12–15°Bx content material, a vibrant yellow-orange or pink-orange color, candy style and typical papaya flavour. There are two main issues dealing with the processor, specifically gelation of the purée because of the liberation of enzymes upon pulping, and the event of off-flavours originating from the pores and skin, latex or seeds.
Canned papaya items: The inexperienced mature or semi-ripe papayas are used within the preparation of canned papaya chunks or slices. Papaya items are sometimes canned in mixtures of subtropical fruit, together with mango and keenness fruit.
Ardour fruit juice is the liquid expressed from the edible portion of the fruit by urgent or different mechanical means. It’s yellow-orange in color and is especially aromatic. The juice is used as a beverage by itself or in a mix with different tropical juices.
Dried pineapple items: Pineapple slices are dried to supply a candy fruit snack with a chewy texture and a attribute pineapple flavour. The ultimate moisture content material might be between 20–25%, relying on the specified texture. Agency ripe pineapples are used. The shelf lifetime of this product is roughly 90 days at ambient temperatures. Storage temperatures of under 7°C will prolong the shelf life.
Canned pineapple items: Ripe pineapples are peeled, cored and reduce into rings, items or crushed for canning. Sugar syrup or pineapple juice could also be added as packaging liquor. – Theresa Siebert, ARC
|The guide on the Agro-Processing of Poultry accommodates full info on the merchandise mentioned above in addition to many different processing strategies and merchandise out there to the poultry farmer and processor. The guide is obtainable from the ARC-Institute for Agricultural Engineering.
Contact: Elmarie Stoltz, zero12 842 4017, firstname.lastname@example.org
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